The book and this website are built on a founding diagram of the industrial cyber-physical system concept inspired by the representation of (Putnik et al. 2019) .
It is possible to generalize this representation according to a system of systems vision where different cyber-physical systems cooperate and interact between them.
The definition that we propose for industrial cyber-physical systems is the following:
Industrial cyber-physical systems (ICPS) consist of physical elements with their control systems, offering and consuming services along a value chain, integrated with digital systems with means of analysis and on-line reconfiguration of these elements. These elements have various degrees of autonomy, connect and cooperate with each other and with humans according to the situation, via information systems, in order to improve actions and decision-making processes in real time, react to unforeseen conditions and facilitate the integration of industrial system changes over time.